FKK: Brief (and uncomplete) history of prohibitions


Period of free development

The late 19th century. Organized social nudism started in Germany. Sunbathing was recognized as an especially healthy form of recreation, and the nude body was rediscovered as an expression of naturalness and true morality [1]. The flourishing of nudism in Germany is also considered as a reaction to the extreme moral conservatism of 19th-century Prussia. On the other hand, conservative circles viewed nude bathing as a moral decay [2].
1920s – 1930s. In the Weimar Republic, the movement was accepted by the majority of the people and became part of mass culture. Nudism developed in many different branches and tested the legal boundaries of ‘indecent behaviour’ [3].

Strict prohibitions

1933 The Nazis had outlawed many of the nudist organizations for lewdness.
1945 The Allies prohibited nudist movement after World War II [3].
1954 The GDR government introduced the ban on nude bathing for the entire East German Baltic Sea coast

Under control

Late 1933. Some nudist organizations united under the umbrella of the Nazi sport movement and became legal.
1946 Various FKK clubs were allowed by the Allies
1940s – 1960s (the Adenauer era) In West Germany nudity was equated with pornography and nudist movement was unable to regain mass popularity [1].
1950s-1980s In East Germany FKK continued and even expanded its mass appeal even though FKK clubs were not officially allowed. East-German citizens could choose between FKK beaches and Textilstranden (textile beaches) where swimsuits were worn [1].

FKK-Strand im Bezirk Cottbus, July 1982 (Deutsches Bundesarchiv)

FKK-Strand im Bezirk Cottbus, July 1982 (Deutsches Bundesarchiv)


After 1990 With unification, the textiles began to dominate again at many beaches. But in the new millennium, the non-club-oriented, laissez-faire attitude seems to have won over most people. Nowadays, discussions about nudity flare up in the media, but in everyday life few people are offended to see someone strip completely, even in a public park [1].

1. Catherine C. Fraser, Dierk O. Hoffmann. Pop culture Germany. ABC-CLIO (2006)
2. Freikörperkultur – Wikipedia
3. A. Krüger , F. Krüger , S. Treptau. Nudism in Nazi Germany: Indecent Behaviour or Physical Culture for the Well-being of the Nation. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 19, (2002) 33 – 54.

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